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Medical Advice for Hyper Tension


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Blood pressure is decided by the quantity of blood the heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in the arteries. The more blood the heart pumps and the narrower the artery, the higher is the blood pressure.

This blood pressure is measured with an inflatable arm cuff and with a pressure gauge. A blood pressure reading, given in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), has two parts. The first part measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats (systolic pressure). The second part measures the pressure in the arteries between beats (diastolic pressure).

Ideal time for medical advice: A Blood Pressure reading has to be taken once in two years. In case of pre Hyper Tension more frequent readings are required.

Screening and diagnosis: The following are the latest BP guidelines:

Normal blood pressure: The blood pressure is normal if it is below 120/80 mm Hg.

Prehypertension: In this, the systolic pressure ranges from 120 to 139 or a diastolic pressure ranges from 80 to 89.

Stage 1 hypertension: In this, the systolic pressure ranges from 140 to 159 or a diastolic pressure ranges from 90 to 99.

Stage 2 hypertension: The most severe hypertension is the stage 2 hypertension. The systolic pressure of 160 or higher or a diastolic pressure of 100 or higher.

Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH): Occurs in people older than 50 where diastolic pressure is normal but systolic pressure is high.

Recommended routine tests: Urine analysis, blood tests and an ECG.

Complications: Damage to the arteries, heart failure, a blocked or ruptured blood vessel in the brain, weakened and narrowed blood vessels in the kidneys, thickened, narrowed or torn blood vessels in the eyes, a cluster of disorders namely elevated waist circumference, high triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein, high BP and insulin levels.

Treatment: 1. Change in life style

2. Medication

Thiazide diuretics- It acts on the kidneys and eliminates sodium and water.

Beta blockers- it reduces the workload on the heart.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers, Calcium channel blockers – these help to relax the blood vessels.

Renin inhibitors- Tekturna (drug) is a renin inhibitor because its effects last more than 24 hours.

Alpha blockers- it reduces nerve impulses to blood vessels.

Alpha-beta blockers- it slows the heart beats.

Central-acting agents- it prevents the brain from signaling the nervous system to increase the heart rate and narrow the blood vessels.

Vasodilators- it prevents the muscles in the walls of the arteries from tightening and arteries from narrowing.

Self-care:

Eat healthy foods, maintain a healthy weight, Increase physical activity, Limit alcohol, and don’t smoke, Manage stress, Practice slow, deep breathing.

Coping skills: Measure blood pressure at home, take medications properly, regular doctor visits, adopt healthy habits, and manage stress. To get motivated, get the support of family and friends.

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